It is an architectural style that started from the Northern Region of France in the 12th century and spread to Europe and continued until the end of the 16th century. The main feature that easily distinguishes it from other styles is its vertical lines rising towards the sky. The purpose of building extremely majestic and high gothic structures in this way is not to provide employment to more people as in today’s conditions, but to reflect the religious belief in architecture. It is the meeting of a belief that believes that a building rising towards the sky is the symbol of the bond between man and God, and that focuses on religions in architecture, with art. Structures constructed in a narrower space rise enormously in vertical dimension. In fact, the height of a gothic cathedral is almost twice the height of a Romanesque cathedral. Another defining feature of Gothic buildings is their triangular and pointed vaults.
Gothic architecture; It took its name from the barbaric architecture of the Goths who were fighting with the Roman Empire.
Some of the world-famous examples of Gothic architecture;
1. Cologne Cathedral, Germany
2. Milan Cathedral, Italy
3. Notre Dame de Paris, France
4. Florence Cathedral, Italy
5. Old Town Bridge Tower, Czechia
6. Canterbury Cathedral, England
7. Basilica of Saint-Denis, France
8. Notre Dame de Reims, France
9. Salisbury Cathedral, England
10. Church of The Virgin Mary, Belgium
11. Amiens Cathedral, France
12. Chartres Cathedral, France
Contrary to the Gothic style, it is the architecture of structures that extend horizontally, not vertically. The buildings built in the Romanesque style are not assertive in terms of height, but they are spread over very large areas. Its walls are very thick and supported by buttresses. There are no windows in the lower parts of the building because of the buttresses. The windows are on the upper floors and are small in size, even so that the windows on the top floor of the building are smaller than the other floors. It has short and blunt projections called towers. The schematic size and scarcity of the windows cause the Romanesque buildings to feel dim and gloomy. While the exterior of the building is quite plain, abstract images and decorations symbolizing the spirit of the time are used in its interior design.
In Romanesque buildings, the vaults are rounded. In addition to the vaults, the same round designs can be found on the window and door frames.
The most famous examples of Romanesque architecture are the Leaning Tower of Pisa and the Cathedral of Pisa in Italy.
Some of the world-famous examples of Romanesque architecture;
1. Tournai Cathedral (Belgium)
2. Murbach Benedictine Church (France)
3. Church of Saint Trophime (France)
4. Speyer Cathedral (Germany)
5. Saint Michael’s Church (Germany)
6. Saint Galle Monastery (Switzerland)
7. Saint Peter’s Basilica (Rome)
8. Durham Cathedral (England)
9. Morienval Abbey (France)
10. Ottmarsheim Abbey (France)
Galata Tower in Istanbul is one of the examples of Romanesque art. Literally, Romanesque means “Roman descendant”.
The word Renaissance is derived from the Italian word ‘Rinascita’ meaning rebirth. Religious meaning is also known as purification from sins. Renaissance architecture, in which the basic art and cultural elements belonging to Roman and Ancient Greek civilizations were reconsidered and reflected in another dimension to the 15th century world; It emerged in the Tuscany region of Italy at the beginning of the 15th century and then spread to all of Europe, especially France, Germany and England towards the middle of the 16th century.
“Flippo Brunelleschi” is accepted as the first architect of the Renaissance period. People who adopted a lifestyle in which religion was the focus in the Gothic period, came under the influence of a new trend when science and art started to resonate all over the world. The Renaissance means that the branches of science such as mathematics, philosophy and physics in Greek civilizations began to be appreciated again and found a place in architecture. Renaissance effects; many social, cultural, environmental and psychological concepts changed at the same time.
On The basis of Renaissance architecture, there is the 10-volume work “De architectura”, written by the Roman architect Vitruvius in 100 AD, in which he describes architecture and urban design.
Contrary to the architectural emphasis of Romanesque and Gothic in the cathedral buildings; Renaissance architecture was also seen in different building types such as palaces, mansions and social buildings. Painting, sculpture and architecture were used as intertwined concepts. The golden ratio is prominent in Renaissance style architectural structures in which stone is used as the main material.
Some of the world-famous Renaissance architectural structures;
1. Florence Cathedral, Florence, Italy.
2. Marciana Library, Venice, Italy.
3. Basilica of Santa Maria Novella, Florence, Italy.
4. Basilica Di San Pietro, Vatican, Italy.
5. Uffizi Museum, Florence, Italy.
6. Pitti Palace, Florence, Italy.
7. Chambord Castle, France.
The origin of the word baroque comes from the Portuguese word barocco, which means ‘not perfectly rounded’. Baroque architecture originated in Italy in the 16th century. This style, which is connected with show, theater and colors; it has taken its place in artistic history as a general dynamic architectural movement that spread from Italy to Europe between the 16th and 18th centuries. In the trend dominated by curved lines, especially on the walls of Italian churches, the processing of God and mythological elements stands out. Also, the buildings of this period were equipped with magnificent and huge gardens.
When its origin is analyzed in terms of artistic thought, it is understood that it developed as a stance against the Renaissance. Baro-style buildings draw attention with their curved facades, large ceiling frescoes and rich decorations with intense use of colors.
Some of the world-famous Baroque architectural structures;
1. Royal Palace of Madrid / Spain.
2. Residence Würzburg / Germany.
3. Palace of Versailles / France.
4. Trevi Fountain / Italy.
5. St Paul’s Cathedral / England.
6. Zwinger Palace / Germany.
7. Church of Karl / Austria.
8. Blenheim Palace / England.